Rolf Englund Home/Search - Löntagarfonder - EU Federalism - Kronkursförsvaret 1992 - Conundrum - Cataclysm

Rome, Habsburg and the European Union

Battle of Vienna
The overall command was held by the senior leader, the King of Poland, John III Sobieski, who led the relief forces.

Historians suggest the battle marked the turning point in the Ottoman–Habsburg wars, a 300-year struggle between the Holy Roman and Ottoman Empires.

The battle is also noted for including the largest known cavalry charge in history.


Man bör även komma ihåg att det var den polske generalen Pilsudski som stoppade Röda armén utanför Warzawa 1920.


Wien var Habsburgdynastins och det Heliga romerska rikets huvudstad. Härifrån dominerades Centraleuropa under nästan 1000 år.
I detta avsnitt får vi följa Habsburgarnas maktutövande, och Wiens försvar av kristendomen mot osmanern

Bookmark and Share

The Rise and Fall of Austria or the Habsburg Empire
Austria was ruled by the Habsburg dynasty from 1278/1282 to 1918. Therefore, historical Austria is also known as the Habsburg Empire or the Habsburg Monarchy.
The Habsburgs made Austria a great power in 1477, when they inherited much of what is now the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. Click

The territory that is now Ukraine has a long and painful history as a bloody borderland between East and West.
But it came into being as an independent nation only in 1991, when the Soviet Union collapsed.
Combining lands in the west that had once been part of Austria-Hungary, and a Russian-speaking south and east,
the new country always had its doubters.
The Economist print edition Feb 22nd 2014

Limes var Romarrikets försvars- och avgränsningssystem.
Systemet markerade Romarrikets yttre gränser.

I Hitlers hemland, Österrike - Don't mention the War or The Sound of Music
Rolf Englund blog 2014-02-23

Rolf: Synd att Hitler inte kom in på konstskolan

Österrike-Ungerns politiker beslöt att utnyttja morden politiskt för att stoppa Serbiens ambitioner på Balkan.
Den 23 juli sändes ett ultimatum till Belgrad, i vilket man krävde att serberna skulle hjälpa till att utreda mordet och samtidigt gå till aktion mot anti-österrikiska kretsar i landet.
Faktum är att serberna gick med på nästan allt, och i Wien borde man inte haft några större problem att inhösta en diplomatisk vinst.
Men österrikarna var inte nöjda – de ville ha krig.
Dick Harrison, SvD, 1 januari 2014

In the last century, three multi-nation currency unions in Europe have endured disorderly breakups -- namely the Habsburg Empire, Yugoslavia, and the Soviet Union.
Anders Åslund, Foreign Policy 8 November 2013

Helmut Schlesinger, was president of the Bundesbank when sterling was forced out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism in 1992.:
- And I would say that either we get the United States of Europe, that is an actual political union, and then that political union gets its own currency.
But then it is no monetary union any longer, but the currency of that new state
Robert Peston, BBC Business editor, 17 May 2012

Europe’s hubristic imperial overstretch
Andrew Roberts, Financial Times May 18, 2012

Bookmark and Share

"By the beginning of February, Stalin is back to working on Marxism and the National Question, which is to become his most famous work
- and the mix of peoples in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire provides him with vivd learning exercise.
In Vienna, Stalin develops the idea of a central empire behind feigned national autonomy
- which, in the end, amounts to the aims and objectives of the Soviet Union."
ur Florian Illies "1913"

Citatet är ur Florian Illies "1913"
Boken 1913. Der Sommer des Jahrhunderts (S Fischer Verlag, 320 s)

Vi tackar Professor Pelotard för tipset.

As 19th century philosopher Ernest Renan noted a nation is defined by "a willingness to live together"
- and every nation in Europe, for most of the post WW2 period, found a way to uphold its local social contract.
To cut a long story short, it is the constitutional right of every country to be badly managed if the survival of the social contract binding the population is at stake.
Finding a way to live together is much more important than being well managed.
Unfortunately, this common sense formulation was never understood by the European zealots,
who were intent on destroying the old gods to replace them with their new and unique god - a new Roman Empire.
Charles Gave, via zerohedge, 1 March 2013

See also Otmar Issing about Rome and EMU

A Historical Atlas and Gazetteer of Europe from Year 1 to 2000

The EU was beginning to develop a quasi-Roman idea of itself as a kind of soft imperial force,
spreading its system to the whole European continent or even
– in the dreams of some of its wilder adherents – the world.

Anatol Lieven, Financial Times, 28/6 2005
The writer is a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington and
author of America Right or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism

If the purpose of monetary union is to tie down a "European Germany" with silken cords, the Kohl-Mitterrand legacy has gone horribly wrong.
Germany's glistening new capital on the Spree - capped by Sir Norman Foster's Reichstag dome - is the throbbing heart of a reborn First Reich, a secular and democratic variant of the Imperium Romanum Sacrum or Hohenstaufen Empire.
Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, 1 April 2012

Ungern ska inte bli en koloni! utropade premiärminister Viktor Orbán utanför det ungerska parlamentet i torsdags kväll.
Hundratusentals anhängare jublade när han talade i samband med att landet firade årsdagen av upproret 1848.
Den gången slogs den ungerska revolten i det habsburgska väldet ned, men vägen mot nationell frihet hade öppnats.
DN huvudledare 18 mars 2012

Full text

Top of page

Welcome to Europe, 2021.
Brussels has been abandoned as Europe's political headquarters. Vienna has been a great success.
"There is something about the Habsburg legacy," explains the dynamic new Austrian Chancellor Marsha Radetzky.
"It just seems to make multinational politics so much more fun."
The Germans also like the new arrangements. "For some reason, we never felt very welcome in Belgium,"
recalls German Chancellor Reinhold Siegfried von Gotha-Dämmerung.
Niall Ferguson, 21/11/2011

More by Niall Ferguson

The Roman empire divided irretrievably. Yet the dream of reunification never died.
It was apparent in the claims of popes and “holy Roman emperors”. It was carried by Napoleon’s eagles.
It is the aspiration embedded in the European Union.
Martin Wolf, Financial Times, November 15, 2011

Confronted with turbulence in the provinces, the eurozone has sent in new governors.
Europe is putting in place these new governors in members that have descended to the status of clients.

"We must now face the difficult task of moving forward towards a single economy, a single political entity...
For the first time since the fall of the Roman Empire we have the opportunity to unite Europe."

Romano Prodi, EU Commission President, speech to European Parliament, 13th October 1999.

Otto von Habsburg
Carl-Johan Westholm 2011

There is no provision in any European Treaty for a country to leave the eurozone.
That was deliberate.
It was intended to make it clear that the eurozone was forever – like the Soviet Union and the Holy Roman Empire.
Roger Bootle, Daily Telegraph 5 September 2011

Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburgs

Alliansen, EMU och det Östliga Partnerskapet
Rolf Englund blog 2010-08-29

Rise of the Fourth Reich, how Germany is using the financial crisis to conquer Europe
Daily Mail 17th August 2011

"ever closer union"

Nationalstaten kontra Europa. Det är det klassiska temat i EU-debatten.
Richard Swartz essä om det habsburgska imperiet i "Mot en kosmopolitisk framtid?"
Ulla Gudmundson, författare och diplomat, DN 26/5 2007

At Tuesday's press conference in Strasbourg, the Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso was asked what the European Union would be after the new reform treaty has been negotiated and agreed.
His answer: Europe is an empire, a non-imperial one, must be said. But still, an empire.
EUX.TV 10/7 2007

Hitler och den Habsburgska Unionen (HU)

I den utmärkta tidskriften Fokus, den 28 augusti 2009, publiceras ett utdrag ur en ny bok av den engelske historikern Richard Overy
där han ställer frågan om varför det utbröt ett allmänt europeiskt krig i september 1939.

Hitler var, skriver han, uppslukad av tanken på att ur Östeuropa mejsla fram en större och grymmare version av det habsburgska
imperiet, beväpnad med en ny ekonomisk modell som kallades Grossraumwirtschaft (en gemensam marknad för ett stort område).
Rolf Englund blog 9/9 2009

Full text

Otto von Habsburg var personligen tveksam till Maastrichtfördraget, som reglerar eurovalutan, när det diskuterades för tjugo år sedan.
Den som i Sverige då var kritisk sattes på undantagsbänk av regeringen Bildt.
"Europa ska växa som ett träd, inte som en skyskrapa". Det var hans /Otto von Habsburgs/ återkommande uppmaning.
Carl-Johan Westholm, 15 september 2011

Full text

Habsburgs picknick och slutet på järnridån och kommunismen
Rolf Englund blog 2009-08-16

Otto von Habsburg

Archduchess Walburga of Austria

Kommentar av Rolf Englund:
EU har redan delvis återupprättat det Habsburgska väldet genom att skapa en region där Österrike, Ungern och
delar av det tidigare habsburgska väldet på Balkan ingår.
INTERREG III B dient - auf der Basis großräumiger Zusammenschlüsse europäischer Regionen - der transnationalen Zusammenarbeit zwischen nationalen, regionalen und lokalen Behörden zur Förderung eines hohen Maßes an räumlicher Integration innerhalb Europas.

Mer om InterregIII

Mer än 600 östtyskar flyr den 19 augusti 1989 från Ungern till Österrike.
De ungerska gränssoldaterna vänder ryggen till när järnridån öppnas på glänt.
Tre månader senare faller Berlinmuren och Europa återförenas.
SvD, reporter Tomas Lundin, 15 augusti 2009

Full text

Poles furious the European Commission forgot about “Solidarity”
The European Commission has produced a clip for the 20th anniversary of the fall of communism,
but it forgot to mention that it all started in Poland.
“Solidarity”, Lech Walesa and the events of 1989 are completely absent.
The rare shots from Poland show general Jaruzelski, who introduced martial law in 1981.
Dominika Pszczolkowska, EU-Observer blog May 18th, 2009

Idag för 20 år sedan (27 juni) klippte den dåvarande Ungerske utrikesminister Gyula Horn och hans Österrikiske kollega för första gången i taggtråden mellan länderna.
Den 19 augusti följde Paneuropa Picknicken som öppnade gränsen oåterkalleligt.
Walburga blog 27 juni 2009

Walburga Habsburg Douglas, moderat riksdagskvinna från Malmköping i Sörmland, deltog i picknicken 1989.
Hon var, 31 år gammal, där å sin pappas, dr Otto von Habsburg (ärkehertig och kronprins av Österrike-Ungern) vägnar. Walburga Habsburg Douglas är yngsta dotter till Otto von Habsburg, och Regina av Sachsen-Meiningen och Karl I, Österrikes siste kejsare, är därmed hennes farfar.
Hon deltar också i minnesceremonierna och har ett eget anförande på tisdag.
På sin blogg ”" berättar hon om picknicken:
”Och det var här som det första hålet klipptes i taggtråden som var en del av järnridån mellan två regimer, mellan två ideologier och mellan frihet och förtryck.”

Rolf Englund:
Ett av mina bestående minnen kommer att vara när jag
under folkomröstningskampanjen om EMU, på torget i Flen,
inför ett tjugotal åskådare, de flesta antagligen asylsökande somalier,
debatterade EMU med Walburga Douglas (m), född Habsburg. Hon var för EMU.

Walburga Habsburg Douglas (m)
Ledamot i Utrikesutskottet

The fascinating story about
The Pan-European Picnic, and the opening of the border 11th of September 1989
Very soon the news arrived that it was Walburga, the daughter of Otto von Habsurg, to represent the second sponsor of the event at the picnic, at Sopronpuszta.
Read the full story here

Pan-European Picnic From Wikipedia

Anf. 101 Utrikesminister CARL BILDT (m):
Fru talman! Jag är smickrad över Walburgas tilltro till mig att reda ut Balkan på en minut, men jag ska göra ett försök.
Läs mer här

The second problem, Bolkestein warned, is that immigration is
turning the E.U. into "an Austro-Hungarian empire on a grand scale."
University of Leiden, Days before the third anniversary of 9/11 2004

EU riskerar att upprepa det habsburgska misstaget
EU är i dag varken en politisk eller ekonomisk stormakt.
EU:s föregångare, Österrike-Ungern, försökte hålla skenet uppe.
Men bättre är att se sanningen i vitögat.
Kay Glans, Chefredaktör och ansvarig utgivare, tidskriften Axess

Europas sista sommar. Vem startade första världskriget?
Dick Harrison SvD 11/11 (vapenstilleståndsdagen) 2004

Fråga inte vad Rom har gjort för dig, utan vad du kan göra för Rom.
DNs politiske chefredaktör 30/5 2005

The Wall Street Journal Interactive Edition -- December 24, 1998

In Hoc Anno Domini

This editorial was written in 1949 by the late Vermont Royster and has been published annually since
When Saul of Tarsus set out on his journey to Damascus the whole of the known world lay in bondage. There was one state, and it was Rome. There was one master for it all, and he was Tiberius Caesar.

Everywhere there was civil order, for the arm of the Roman law was long. Everywhere there was stability, in government and in society, for the centurions saw that it was so.

But everywhere there was something else, too. There was oppression--for those who were not the friends of Tiberius Caesar. There was the tax gatherer to take the grain from the fields and the flax from the spindle to feed the legions or to fill the hungry treasury from which divine Caesar gave largess to the people. There was the impressor to find recruits for the circuses. There were executioners to quiet those whom the Emperor proscribed. What was a man for but to serve Caesar?

There was the persecution of men who dared think differently, who heard strange voices or read strange manuscripts. There was enslavement of men whose tribes came not from Rome, disdain for those who did not have the familiar visage. And most of all, there was everywhere a contempt for human life. What, to the strong, was one man more or less in a crowded world?

Then, of a sudden, there was a light in the world, and a man from Galilee saying, Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's.

And the voice from Galilee, which would defy Caesar, offered a new Kingdom in which each man could walk upright and bow to none but his God. Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me. And he sent this gospel of the Kingdom of Man into the uttermost ends of the earth.

So the light came into the world and the men who lived in darkness were afraid, and they tried to lower a curtain so that man would still believe salvation lay with the leaders.

But it came to pass for a while in divers places that the truth did set man free, although the men of darkness were offended and they tried to put out the light. The voice said, Haste ye. Walk while you have the light, lest darkness come upon you, for he that walketh in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth.

Along the road to Damascus the light shone brightly. But afterward Paul of Tarsus, too, was sore afraid. He feared that other Caesars, other prophets, might one day persuade men that man was nothing save a servant unto them, that men might yield up their birthright from God for pottage and walk no more in freedom.

Then might it come to pass that darkness would settle again over the lands and there would be a burning of books and men would think only of what they should eat and what they should wear, and would give heed only to new Caesars and to false prophets. Then might it come to pass that men would not look upward to see even a winter's star in the East, and once more, there would be no light at all in the darkness.

And so Paul, the apostle of the Son of Man, spoke to his brethren, the Galatians, the words he would have us remember afterward in each of the years of his Lord:

Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ has made us free and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage.


See also Otmar Issing about Rome and EMU

Read more at Top of page

Svenska läsare, klicka här för Det Eviga, av Tegnér
Den som inte tror att det finns eviga värden rekommenderas att gå och beundra den uppstoppade geten på Moderna Museet.